ruby-on-rails-xss

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Secure defaults for XSS prevention for Ruby on Rails

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'content_tag()' bypasses HTML escaping for some portion of the content. If external data can reach here, this exposes your application to cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. Ensure no external data reaches here. If you must do this, create your HTML manually and use 'html_safe'. Ensure no external data enters the HTML-safe string!

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'raw()' bypasses HTML escaping. If external data can reach here, this exposes your application to cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. If you must do this, construct individual strings and mark them as safe for HTML rendering with `html_safe()`.

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'render inline: ...' renders an entire ERB template inline and is dangerous. If external data can reach here, this exposes your application to server-side template injection (SSTI) or cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. Instead, consider using a partial or another safe rendering method.

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Detected a template variable used in 'link_to'. This will generate dynamic data in the 'href' attribute. This allows a malicious actor to input the 'javascript:' URI and is subject to cross- site scripting (XSS) attacks. If using a relative URL, start with a literal forward slash and concatenate the URL, like this: 'link_to "Here", "/"+@link'. You may also consider setting the Content Security Policy (CSP) header.

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Detected a template variable used in an anchor tag with the 'href' attribute. This allows a malicious actor to input the 'javascript:' URI and is subject to cross- site scripting (XSS) attacks. If using a relative URL, start with a literal forward slash and concatenate the URL, like this: href='/<%= link =>'. You may also consider setting the Content Security Policy (CSP) header.

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'content_tag' exhibits unintuitive escaping behavior and may accidentally expose your application to cross-site scripting. If using Rails 2, only attribute values are escaped. If using Rails 3, content and attribute values are escaped. Tag and attribute names are never escaped. Because of this, it is recommended to use 'html_safe' if you must render raw HTML data.

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'raw' renders raw HTML, as the name implies. This means that normal HTML escaping is bypassed. If user data can be controlled here, this exposes your application to cross-site scripting (XSS). If you need to do this, be sure to correctly sanitize the data using a library such as DOMPurify.