python

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Default ruleset for Python, curated by r2c.

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Rules (195)

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Data from request object is passed to a new server-side request. This could lead to a server-side request forgery (SSRF). To mitigate, ensure that schemes and hosts are validated against an allowlist, do not forward the response to the user, and ensure proper authentication and transport-layer security in the proxied request.

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Found user data in a call to 'eval'. This is extremely dangerous because it can enable an attacker to execute arbitrary remote code on the system. Instead, refactor your code to not use 'eval' and instead use a safe library for the specific functionality you need.

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Found user data in a call to 'exec'. This is extremely dangerous because it can enable an attacker to execute arbitrary remote code on the system. Instead, refactor your code to not use 'eval' and instead use a safe library for the specific functionality you need.

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A hard-coded credential was detected. It is not recommended to store credentials in source-code, as this risks secrets being leaked and used by either an internal or external malicious adversary. It is recommended to use environment variables to securely provide credentials or retrieve credentials from a secure vault or HSM (Hardware Security Module).

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The Python documentation recommends using `defusedxml` instead of `xml` because the native Python `xml` library is vulnerable to XML External Entity (XXE) attacks. These attacks can leak confidential data and "XML bombs" can cause denial of service.

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Distinct, Having, Group_by, Order_by, and Filter in SQLAlchemy can cause sql injections if the developer inputs raw SQL into the before-mentioned clauses. This pattern captures relevant cases in which the developer inputs raw SQL into the distinct, having, group_by, order_by or filter clauses and injects user-input into the raw SQL with any function besides "bindparams". Use bindParams to securely bind user-input to SQL statements.

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Avoid using `shelve`, which uses `pickle`, which is known to lead to code execution vulnerabilities. When unpickling, the serialized data could be manipulated to run arbitrary code. Instead, consider serializing the relevant data as JSON or a similar text-based serialization format.

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Detected Flask app with debug=True. Do not deploy to production with this flag enabled as it will leak sensitive information. Instead, consider using Flask configuration variables or setting 'debug' using system environment variables.

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Detected a possible YAML deserialization vulnerability. `yaml.unsafe_load`, `yaml.Loader`, `yaml.CLoader`, and `yaml.UnsafeLoader` are all known to be unsafe methods of deserializing YAML. An attacker with control over the YAML input could create special YAML input that allows the attacker to run arbitrary Python code. This would allow the attacker to steal files, download and install malware, or otherwise take over the machine. Use `yaml.safe_load` or `yaml.SafeLoader` instead.

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Data that is possible user-controlled from a python request is passed to `raw()`. This could lead to SQL injection and attackers gaining access to protected information. Instead, use django's QuerySets, which are built with query parameterization and therefore not vulnerable to sql injection. For example, you could use `Entry.objects.filter(date=2006)`.

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Found user-controlled request data being passed into a file open, which is them passed as an argument into the FileResponse. This is dangerous because an attacker could specify an arbitrary file to read, which could result in leaking important data. Be sure to validate or sanitize the user-inputted filename in the request data before using it in FileResponse.

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Hardcoded JWT secret or private key is used. This is a Insufficiently Protected Credentials weakness: https://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/522.html Consider using an appropriate security mechanism to protect the credentials (e.g. keeping secrets in environment variables)

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Detected use of the 'none' algorithm in a JWT token. The 'none' algorithm assumes the integrity of the token has already been verified. This would allow a malicious actor to forge a JWT token that will automatically be verified. Do not explicitly use the 'none' algorithm. Instead, use an algorithm such as 'HS256'.

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Found user-controlled request data passed into '.write(...)'. This could be dangerous if a malicious actor is able to control data into sensitive files. For example, a malicious actor could force rolling of critical log files, or cause a denial-of-service by using up available disk space. Instead, ensure that request data is properly escaped or sanitized.

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Data from request object is passed to a new server-side request. This could lead to a server-side request forgery (SSRF). To mitigate, ensure that schemes and hosts are validated against an allowlist, do not forward the response to the user, and ensure proper authentication and transport-layer security in the proxied request. See https://owasp.org/www-community/attacks/Server_Side_Request_Forgery to learn more about SSRF vulnerabilities.

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Data from request object is passed to a new server-side request. This could lead to a server-side request forgery (SSRF), which could result in attackers gaining access to private organization data. To mitigate, ensure that schemes and hosts are validated against an allowlist, do not forward the response to the user, and ensure proper authentication and transport-layer security in the proxied request.

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Data from request ($DATA) is passed to redirect(). This is an open redirect and could be exploited. Ensure you are redirecting to safe URLs by using django.utils.http.is_safe_url(). See https://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/601.html for more information.

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Detected subprocess function '$LOOP.subprocess_exec' with argument tainted by `event` object. If this data can be controlled by a malicious actor, it may be an instance of command injection. Audit the use of this call to ensure it is not controllable by an external resource. You may consider using 'shlex.escape()'.

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Detected `os` function with argument tainted by `event` object. This is dangerous if external data can reach this function call because it allows a malicious actor to execute commands. Use the 'subprocess' module instead, which is easier to use without accidentally exposing a command injection vulnerability.

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Detected SQL statement that is tainted by `event` object. This could lead to SQL injection if the variable is user-controlled and not properly sanitized. In order to prevent SQL injection, used parameterized queries or prepared statements instead. You can use parameterized statements like so: `cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM projects WHERE status = %s', ('active'))`

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Detected SQL statement that is tainted by `event` object. This could lead to SQL injection if the variable is user-controlled and not properly sanitized. In order to prevent SQL injection, used parameterized queries or prepared statements instead. You can use parameterized statements like so: `cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM projects WHERE status = %s', 'active')`

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Detected SQL statement that is tainted by `event` object. This could lead to SQL injection if the variable is user-controlled and not properly sanitized. In order to prevent SQL injection, used parameterized queries or prepared statements instead. You can use parameterized statements like so: `cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM projects WHERE status = %s', 'active')`

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Detected SQL statement that is tainted by `event` object. This could lead to SQL injection if the variable is user-controlled and not properly sanitized. In order to prevent SQL injection, used parameterized queries or prepared statements instead. You can use parameterized statements like so: `cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM projects WHERE status = %s', ('active'))`

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Detected SQL statement that is tainted by `event` object. This could lead to SQL injection if the variable is user-controlled and not properly sanitized. In order to prevent SQL injection, used parameterized queries or prepared statements instead. You can use parameterized statements like so: `cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM projects WHERE status = ?', 'active')`

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Detected user input flowing into a manually constructed HTML string. You may be accidentally bypassing secure methods of rendering HTML by manually constructing HTML and this could create a cross-site scripting vulnerability, which could let attackers steal sensitive user data. To be sure this is safe, check that the HTML is rendered safely. Otherwise, use templates which will safely render HTML instead.

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Detected user input used to manually construct a SQL string. This is usually bad practice because manual construction could accidentally result in a SQL injection. An attacker could use a SQL injection to steal or modify contents of the database. Instead, use a parameterized query which is available by default in most database engines. Alternatively, consider using an object-relational mapper (ORM) such as Sequelize which will protect your queries.

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Detected user input entering a `subprocess` call unsafely. This could result in a command injection vulnerability. An attacker could use this vulnerability to execute arbitrary commands on the host, which allows them to download malware, scan sensitive data, or run any command they wish on the server. Do not let users choose the command to run. In general, prefer to use Python API versions of system commands. If you must use subprocess, use a dictionary to allowlist a set of commands.

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Detected user input into a generated CSV file using the built-in `csv` module. If user data is used to generate the data in this file, it is possible that an attacker could inject a formula when the CSV is imported into a spreadsheet application that runs an attacker script, which could steal data from the importing user or, at worst, install malware on the user's computer. `defusedcsv` is a drop-in replacement with the same API that will attempt to mitigate formula injection attempts. You can use `defusedcsv` instead of `csv` to safely generate CSVs.

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Detected user input flowing into a manually constructed HTML string. You may be accidentally bypassing secure methods of rendering HTML by manually constructing HTML and this could create a cross-site scripting vulnerability, which could let attackers steal sensitive user data. To be sure this is safe, check that the HTML is rendered safely. Otherwise, use templates (`django.shortcuts.render`) which will safely render HTML instead.

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Found user input going directly into typecast for bool(), float(), or complex(). This allows an attacker to inject Python's not-a-number (NaN) into the typecast. This results in undefind behavior, particularly when doing comparisons. Either cast to a different type, or add a guard checking for all capitalizations of the string 'nan'.

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Detected user input into a generated CSV file using the built-in `csv` module. If user data is used to generate the data in this file, it is possible that an attacker could inject a formula when the CSV is imported into a spreadsheet application that runs an attacker script, which could steal data from the importing user or, at worst, install malware on the user's computer. `defusedcsv` is a drop-in replacement with the same API that will attempt to mitigate formula injection attempts. You can use `defusedcsv` instead of `csv` to safely generate CSVs.

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Found user input going directly into typecast for bool(), float(), or complex(). This allows an attacker to inject Python's not-a-number (NaN) into the typecast. This results in undefind behavior, particularly when doing comparisons. Either cast to a different type, or add a guard checking for all capitalizations of the string 'nan'.

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Detected user input flowing into a manually constructed HTML string. You may be accidentally bypassing secure methods of rendering HTML by manually constructing HTML and this could create a cross-site scripting vulnerability, which could let attackers steal sensitive user data. To be sure this is safe, check that the HTML is rendered safely. Otherwise, use templates (`flask.render_template`) which will safely render HTML instead.

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Detected user input entering a `subprocess` call unsafely. This could result in a command injection vulnerability. An attacker could use this vulnerability to execute arbitrary commands on the host, which allows them to download malware, scan sensitive data, or run any command they wish on the server. Do not let users choose the command to run. In general, prefer to use Python API versions of system commands. If you must use subprocess, use a dictionary to allowlist a set of commands.

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Detected user input used to manually construct a SQL string. This is usually bad practice because manual construction could accidentally result in a SQL injection. An attacker could use a SQL injection to steal or modify contents of the database. Instead, use a parameterized query which is available by default in most database engines. Alternatively, consider using an object-relational mapper (ORM) such as SQLAlchemy which will protect your queries.

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User data flows into the host portion of this manually-constructed URL. This could allow an attacker to send data to their own server, potentially exposing sensitive data such as cookies or authorization information sent with this request. They could also probe internal servers or other resources that the server runnig this code can access. (This is called server-side request forgery, or SSRF.) Do not allow arbitrary hosts. Instead, create an allowlist for approved hosts hardcode the correct host.

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Detected a Jinja2 environment with 'autoescaping' disabled. This is dangerous if you are rendering to a browser because this allows for cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. If you are in a web context, enable 'autoescaping' by setting 'autoescape=True.' You may also consider using 'jinja2.select_autoescape()' to only enable automatic escaping for certain file extensions.

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Detected a Jinja2 environment without autoescaping. Jinja2 does not autoescape by default. This is dangerous if you are rendering to a browser because this allows for cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. If you are in a web context, enable autoescaping by setting 'autoescape=True.' You may also consider using 'jinja2.select_autoescape()' to only enable automatic escaping for certain file extensions.

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Distinct, Having, Group_by, Order_by, and Filter in SQLAlchemy can cause sql injections if the developer inputs raw SQL into the before-mentioned clauses. This pattern captures relevant cases in which the developer inputs raw SQL into the distinct, having, group_by, order_by or filter clauses and injects user-input into the raw SQL with any function besides "bindparams". Use bindParams to securely bind user-input to SQL statements.