Default ruleset for Java, by r2c
NullCipher was detected. This will not encrypt anything; the cipher text will be the same as the plain text. Use a valid, secure cipher: Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS7PADDING"). See https://owasp.org/www-community/Using_the_Java_Cryptographic_Extensions for more information.
Initialization Vectors (IVs) for block ciphers should be randomly generated each time they are used. Using a static IV means the same plaintext encrypts to the same ciphertext every time, weakening the strength of the encryption.
DefaultHttpClient is deprecated. Further, it does not support connections using TLS1.2, which makes using DefaultHttpClient a security hazard. Use SystemDefaultHttpClient instead, which supports TLS1.2.
Detected empty trust manager implementations. This is dangerous because it accepts any certificate, enabling man-in-the-middle attacks. Consider using a KeyStore and TrustManagerFactory instead. See https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2642777/trusting-all-certificates-using-httpclient-over-https for more information.
An insecure SSL context was detected. TLS versions 1.0, 1.1, and all SSL versions are considered weak encryption and are deprecated. Use SSLContext.getInstance("TLSv1.2") for the best security.
Detected a potential path traversal. A malicious actor could control the location of this file, to include going backwards in the directory with '../'. To address this, ensure that user-controlled variables in file paths are sanitized. You may also consider using a utility method such as org.apache.commons.io.FilenameUtils.getName(...) to only retrieve the file name from the path.
Cross-site scripting detected in HttpServletResponse writer with variable '$VAR'. User input was detected going directly from the HttpServletRequest into output. Ensure your data is properly encoded using org.owasp.encoder.Encode.forHtml: 'Encode.forHtml($VAR)'.
Insecure HostnameVerifier implementation detected. This will accept any SSL certificate with any hostname, which creates the possibility for man-in-the-middle attacks.
`$X == $X` or `$X != $X` is always true. (Unless the value compared is a float or double). To test if `$X` is not-a-number, use `Double.isNaN($X)`.
Detected a formatted string in a SQL statement. This could lead to SQL injection if variables in the SQL statement are not properly sanitized. Use a prepared statements (java.sql.PreparedStatement) instead. You can obtain a PreparedStatement using 'connection.prepareStatement'.
A formatted or concatenated string was detected as input to a java.lang.Runtime call. This is dangerous if a variable is controlled by user input and could result in a command injection. Ensure your variables are not controlled by users or sufficiently sanitized.
Detected potential code injection using ScriptEngine. Ensure user-controlled data cannot enter '.eval()', otherwise, this is a code injection vulnerability.
Detected anonymous LDAP bind. This permits anonymous users to execute LDAP statements. Consider enforcing authentication for LDAP. See https://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/jndi/ldap/auth_mechs.html for more information.
'Integer.toHexString()' strips leading zeroes from each byte if read byte-by-byte. This mistake weakens the hash value computed since it introduces more collisions. Use 'String.format("%02X", ...)' instead.
A cookie was detected without setting the 'HttpOnly' flag. The 'HttpOnly' flag for cookies instructs the browser to forbid client-side scripts from reading the cookie. Set the 'HttpOnly' flag by calling 'cookie.setHttpOnly(true);'
A cookie was detected without setting the 'secure' flag. The 'secure' flag for cookies prevents the client from transmitting the cookie over insecure channels such as HTTP. Set the 'secure' flag by calling '$COOKIE.setSecure(true);'
Cryptographic algorithms are notoriously difficult to get right. By implementing a custom message digest, you risk introducing security issues into your program. Use one of the many sound message digests already available to you: MessageDigest sha256Digest = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA256");
This socket is not encrypted. The traffic could be read by an attacker intercepting the network traffic. Use an SSLSocket created by 'SSLSocketFactory' or 'SSLServerSocketFactory' instead
Older Java application servers are vulnerable to HTTP response splitting, which may occur if an HTTP request can be injected with CRLF characters. This finding is reported for completeness; it is recommended to ensure your environment is not affected by testing this yourself.
Detected non-constant data passed into an LDAP query. If this data can be controlled by an external user, this is an LDAP injection. Ensure data passed to an LDAP query is not controllable; or properly sanitize the data.
Found object deserialization using ObjectInputStream. Deserializing entire Java objects is dangerous because malicious actors can create Java object streams with unintended consequences. Ensure that the objects being deserialized are not user-controlled. If this must be done, consider using HMACs to sign the data stream to make sure it is not tampered with, or consider only transmitting object fields and populating a new object.
Application redirects to a destination URL specified by a user-supplied parameter that is not validated. This could direct users to malicious locations. Consider using an allowlist to validate URLs.
XMLDecoder should not be used to parse untrusted data. Deserializing user input can lead to arbitrary code execution. Use an alternative and explicitly disable external entities. See https://cheatsheetseries.owasp.org/cheatsheets/XML_External_Entity_Prevention_Cheat_Sheet.html for alternatives and vulnerability prevention.
It looks like you're using an implementation of XSSRequestWrapper from dzone. (https://www.javacodegeeks.com/2012/07/anti-cross-site-scripting-xss-filter.html) The XSS filtering in this code is not secure and can be bypassed by malicious actors. It is recommended to use a stack that automatically escapes in your view or templates instead of filtering yourself.
Using CBC with PKCS5Padding is susceptible to padding oracle attacks. A malicious actor could discern the difference between plaintext with valid or invalid padding. Further, CBC mode does not include any integrity checks. See https://find-sec-bugs.github.io/bugs.htm#CIPHER_INTEGRITY. Use 'AES/GCM/NoPadding' instead.
Detected cookie without the SameSite attribute.
Strings should not be compared with '=='. This is a reference comparison operator. Use '.equals()' instead.
Triple DES (3DES or DESede) is considered deprecated. AES is the recommended cipher. Upgrade to use AES.
Detected a request with potential user-input going into a OutputStream or Writer object. This bypasses any view or template environments, including HTML escaping, which may expose this application to cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities. Consider using a view technology such as JavaServer Faces (JSFs) which automatically escapes HTML views.
When a Restful webservice endpoint isn't configured with a @Consumes annotation, an attacker could abuse the SerializableProvider by sending a HTTP Request with a Content-Type of application/x-java-serialized-object. The body of that request would be processed by the SerializationProvider and could contain a malicious payload, which may lead to arbitrary code execution.
Detected MD5 hash algorithm which is considered insecure. MD5 is not collision resistant and is therefore not suitable as a cryptographic signature. Use HMAC instead.
Detected SHA1 hash algorithm which is considered insecure. SHA1 is not collision resistant and is therefore not suitable as a cryptographic signature. Instead, use PBKDF2 for password hashing or SHA256 or SHA512 for other hash function applications.
Detected use of the functions `Math.random()` or `java.util.Random()`. These are both not cryptographically strong random number generators (RNGs). If you are using these RNGs to create passwords or secret tokens, use `java.security.SecureRandom` instead.
Detected input from a HTTPServletRequest going into a SQL sink or statement. This could lead to SQL injection if variables in the SQL statement are not properly sanitized. Use parameterized SQL queries or properly sanitize user input instead.
Detected input from a HTTPServletRequest going into a 'ProcessBuilder' or 'exec' command. This could lead to command injection if variables passed into the exec commands are not properly sanitized. Instead, avoid using these OS commands with user-supplied input, or, if you must use these commands, use a whitelist of specific values.
Detected input from a HTTPServletRequest going into an LDAP query. This could lead to LDAP injection if the input is not properly santized, which could result in attackers modifying objects in the LDAP tree structure. Ensure data passed to an LDAP query is not controllable or properly sanitize the data.
Detected input from a HTTPServletRequest going into a session command, like `setAttribute`. User input into such a command could lead to an attacker inputting malicious code into your session parameters, blurring the line between what's trusted and untrusted, and therefore leading to a trust boundary violation. This could lead to programmers trusting unvalidated data. Instead, thoroughly sanitize user input before passing it into such function calls.
Detected input from a HTTPServletRequest going into a XPath evaluate or compile command. This could lead to xpath injection if variables passed into the evaluate or compile commands are not properly sanitized. Xpath injection could lead to unauthorized access to sensitive information in XML documents. Instead, thoroughly sanitize user input or use parameterized xpath queries if you can.