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This ruleset is intended to produce low false positives, and safe for use in CI/CD pipelines.

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Rules (697)

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Found an insecure gRPC connection using 'grpc.WithInsecure()'. This creates a connection without encryption to a gRPC server. A malicious attacker could tamper with the gRPC message, which could compromise the machine. Instead, establish a secure connection with an SSL certificate using the 'grpc.WithTransportCredentials()' function. You can create a create credentials using a 'tls.Config{}' struct with 'credentials.NewTLS()'. The final fix looks like this: 'grpc.WithTransportCredentials(credentials.NewTLS(<config>))'.

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Found an insecure gRPC server without 'grpc.Creds()' or options with credentials. This allows for a connection without encryption to this server. A malicious attacker could tamper with the gRPC message, which could compromise the machine. Include credentials derived from an SSL certificate in order to create a secure gRPC connection. You can create credentials using 'credentials.NewServerTLSFromFile("cert.pem", "cert.key")'.

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Detected an insecure CipherSuite via the 'tls' module. This suite is considered weak. Use the function 'tls.CipherSuites()' to get a list of good cipher suites. See https://golang.org/pkg/crypto/tls/#InsecureCipherSuites for why and what other cipher suites to use.

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NullCipher was detected. This will not encrypt anything; the cipher text will be the same as the plain text. Use a valid, secure cipher: Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS7PADDING"). See https://owasp.org/www-community/Using_the_Java_Cryptographic_Extensions for more information.

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A hard-coded credential was detected. It is not recommended to store credentials in source-code, as this risks secrets being leaked and used by either an internal or external malicious adversary. It is recommended to use environment variables to securely provide credentials or retrieve credentials from a secure vault or HSM (Hardware Security Module).

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Detected use of the 'none' algorithm in a JWT token. The 'none' algorithm assumes the integrity of the token has already been verified. This would allow a malicious actor to forge a JWT token that will automatically be verified. Do not explicitly use the 'none' algorithm. Instead, use an algorithm such as 'HS256'.

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A hard-coded credential was detected. It is not recommended to store credentials in source-code, as this risks secrets being leaked and used by either an internal or external malicious adversary. It is recommended to use environment variables to securely provide credentials or retrieve credentials from a secure vault or HSM (Hardware Security Module).

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`MinVersion` is missing from this TLS configuration. By default, TLS 1.2 is currently used as the minimum when acting as a client, and TLS 1.0 when acting as a server. General purpose web applications should default to TLS 1.3 with all other protocols disabled. Only where it is known that a web server must support legacy clients with unsupported an insecure browsers (such as Internet Explorer 10), it may be necessary to enable TLS 1.0 to provide support. Add `MinVersion: tls.VersionTLS13' to the TLS configuration to bump the minimum version to TLS 1.3.

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Hardcoded JWT secret or private key is used. This is a Insufficiently Protected Credentials weakness: https://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/522.html Consider using an appropriate security mechanism to protect the credentials (e.g. keeping secrets in environment variables)

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Detected use of the 'none' algorithm in a JWT token. The 'none' algorithm assumes the integrity of the token has already been verified. This would allow a malicious actor to forge a JWT token that will automatically be verified. Do not explicitly use the 'none' algorithm. Instead, use an algorithm such as 'HS256'.

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A hard-coded credential was detected. It is not recommended to store credentials in source-code, as this risks secrets being leaked and used by either an internal or external malicious adversary. It is recommended to use environment variables to securely provide credentials or retrieve credentials from a secure vault or HSM (Hardware Security Module).

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Detected use of the 'none' algorithm in a JWT token. The 'none' algorithm assumes the integrity of the token has already been verified. This would allow a malicious actor to forge a JWT token that will automatically be verified. Do not explicitly use the 'none' algorithm. Instead, use an algorithm such as 'HS256'.

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Cipher in ECB mode is detected. ECB mode produces the same output for the same input each time which allows an attacker to intercept and replay the data. Further, ECB mode does not provide any integrity checking. See https://find-sec-bugs.github.io/bugs.htm#CIPHER_INTEGRITY.

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The application accepts potentially user-controlled input `$PROP` which can control the location of the current window context. This can lead two types of vulnerabilities open-redirection and Cross-Site-Scripting (XSS) with JavaScript URIs. It is recommended to validate user-controllable input before allowing it to control the redirection.

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Service '$SERVICE' is running in privileged mode. This grants the container the equivalent of root capabilities on the host machine. This can lead to container escapes, privilege escalation, and other security concerns. Remove the 'privileged' key to disable this capability.

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Using variable interpolation `${{...}}` with `github` context data in a `run:` step could allow an attacker to inject their own code into the runner. This would allow them to steal secrets and code. `github` context data can have arbitrary user input and should be treated as untrusted. Instead, use an intermediate environment variable with `env:` to store the data and use the environment variable in the `run:` script. Be sure to use double-quotes the environment variable, like this: "$ENVVAR".

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DOCTYPE declarations are enabled for javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory. Without prohibiting external entity declarations, this is vulnerable to XML external entity attacks. Disable this by setting the feature "http://apache.org/xml/features/disallow-doctype-decl" to true. Alternatively, allow DOCTYPE declarations and only prohibit external entities declarations. This can be done by setting the features "http://xml.org/sax/features/external-general-entities" and "http://xml.org/sax/features/external-parameter-entities" to false.

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Detected SHA1 hash algorithm which is considered insecure. SHA1 is not collision resistant and is therefore not suitable as a cryptographic signature. Instead, use PBKDF2 for password hashing or SHA256 or SHA512 for other hash function applications.

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An HTTP redirect was found to be crafted from user-input `$REQUEST`. This can lead to open redirect vulnerabilities, potentially allowing attackers to redirect users to malicious web sites. It is recommend where possible to not allow user-input to craft the redirect URL. When user-input is necessary to craft the request, it is recommended to follow OWASP best practices to restrict the URL to domains in an allowlist.

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User data flows into this manually-constructed SQL string. User data can be safely inserted into SQL strings using prepared statements or an object-relational mapper (ORM). Manually-constructed SQL strings is a possible indicator of SQL injection, which could let an attacker steal or manipulate data from the database. Instead, use prepared statements (`db.Query("SELECT * FROM t WHERE id = ?", id)`) or a safe library.

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A request was found to be crafted from user-input `$REQUEST`. This can lead to Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) vulnerabilities, potentially exposing sensitive data. It is recommend where possible to not allow user-input to craft the base request, but to be treated as part of the path or query parameter. When user-input is necessary to craft the request, it is recommended to follow OWASP best practices to prevent abuse, including using an allowlist.

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Use of AES with ECB mode detected. ECB doesn't provide message confidentiality and is not semantically secure so should not be used. Instead, use a strong, secure cipher: Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS7PADDING"). See https://owasp.org/www-community/Using_the_Java_Cryptographic_Extensions for more information.

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Use of Blowfish was detected. Blowfish uses a 64-bit block size that makes it vulnerable to birthday attacks, and is therefore considered non-compliant. Instead, use a strong, secure cipher: Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS7PADDING"). See https://owasp.org/www-community/Using_the_Java_Cryptographic_Extensions for more information.

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Use of AES with no settings detected. By default, java.crypto.Cipher uses ECB mode. ECB doesn't provide message confidentiality and is not semantically secure so should not be used. Instead, use a strong, secure cipher: java.crypto.Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS7PADDING"). See https://owasp.org/www-community/Using_the_Java_Cryptographic_Extensions for more information.

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Use of RC2 was detected. RC2 is vulnerable to related-key attacks, and is therefore considered non-compliant. Instead, use a strong, secure cipher: Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS7PADDING"). See https://owasp.org/www-community/Using_the_Java_Cryptographic_Extensions for more information.

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Use of RC4 was detected. RC4 is vulnerable to several attacks, including stream cipher attacks and bit flipping attacks. Instead, use a strong, secure cipher: Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS7PADDING"). See https://owasp.org/www-community/Using_the_Java_Cryptographic_Extensions for more information.

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Detected SHA1 hash algorithm which is considered insecure. SHA1 is not collision resistant and is therefore not suitable as a cryptographic signature. Instead, use PBKDF2 for password hashing or SHA256 or SHA512 for other hash function applications.

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DOCTYPE declarations are enabled for $DBFACTORY. Without prohibiting external entity declarations, this is vulnerable to XML external entity attacks. Disable this by setting the feature "http://apache.org/xml/features/disallow-doctype-decl" to true. Alternatively, allow DOCTYPE declarations and only prohibit external entities declarations. This can be done by setting the features "http://xml.org/sax/features/external-general-entities" and "http://xml.org/sax/features/external-parameter-entities" to false.

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DOCTYPE declarations are enabled for this DocumentBuilderFactory. This is vulnerable to XML external entity attacks. Disable this by setting the feature "http://apache.org/xml/features/disallow-doctype-decl" to true. Alternatively, allow DOCTYPE declarations and only prohibit external entities declarations. This can be done by setting the features "http://xml.org/sax/features/external-general-entities" and "http://xml.org/sax/features/external-parameter-entities" to false.

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DOCTYPE declarations are enabled for this SAXParserFactory. This is vulnerable to XML external entity attacks. Disable this by setting the feature `http://apache.org/xml/features/disallow-doctype-decl` to true. Alternatively, allow DOCTYPE declarations and only prohibit external entities declarations. This can be done by setting the features `http://xml.org/sax/features/external-general-entities` and `http://xml.org/sax/features/external-parameter-entities` to false. NOTE - The previous links are not meant to be clicked. They are the literal config key values that are supposed to be used to disable these features. For more information, see https://semgrep.dev/docs/cheat-sheets/java-xxe/#3a-documentbuilderfactory.

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Detected user input controlling a file path. An attacker could control the location of this file, to include going backwards in the directory with '../'. To address this, ensure that user-controlled variables in file paths are sanitized. You may also consider using a utility method such as org.apache.commons.io.FilenameUtils.getName(...) to only retrieve the file name from the path.

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Detected user input entering a method which executes a system command. This could result in a command injection vulnerability, which allows an attacker to inject an arbitrary system command onto the server. The attacker could download malware onto or steal data from the server. Instead, use ProcessBuilder, separating the command into individual arguments, like this: `new ProcessBuilder("ls", "-al", targetDirectory)`. Further, make sure you hardcode or allowlist the actual command so that attackers can't run arbitrary commands.

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Detected user input entering a `subprocess` call unsafely. This could result in a command injection vulnerability. An attacker could use this vulnerability to execute arbitrary commands on the host, which allows them to download malware, scan sensitive data, or run any command they wish on the server. Do not let users choose the command to run. In general, prefer to use Python API versions of system commands. If you must use subprocess, use a dictionary to allowlist a set of commands.

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Detected user input entering a `subprocess` call unsafely. This could result in a command injection vulnerability. An attacker could use this vulnerability to execute arbitrary commands on the host, which allows them to download malware, scan sensitive data, or run any command they wish on the server. Do not let users choose the command to run. In general, prefer to use Python API versions of system commands. If you must use subprocess, use a dictionary to allowlist a set of commands.